People need to work with artificial intelligence, he says, in part to avoid a scenario where AI becomes so powerful it destroys the human race.
Neuralink, founded in 2017, has worked hard to recruit scientists, something Mr Musk was still advertising for on Twitter last month.
The device the company is developing consists of a tiny probe containing more than 3,000 electrodes attached to flexible threads thinner than a human hair, which can monitor the activity of 1,000 brain neurons.
It has also built a “neurosurgical robot” that it says can insert 192 electrodes into the brain every minute.
University of Pittsburgh assistant professor of physical medicine and rehabilitation Jennifer Collinger described what Mr Musk was trying to do as “truly disruptive technology in a difficult space of medical technology”.
“Neuralink has significant resources and critically a team of scientists, engineers and clinicians working towards a common goal, which gives them a great chance of success,” she added.
But she also said: “Even with these resources, medical-device development takes time and safety needs to be a top priority, so I suspect the process may take longer than they have stated as their goals.”